In-toeing occurs when the feet are positioned too far inward walking. This is also known as Pigeon-toed or Metarsus adductus.  This condition may be observed in young children as they are learning to walk. By the age of two, most children outgrow these problems on their own.



The cause of in-toeing can be differentiated based on the location of the disalignment. The variants are:

  • Curved foot (metatarsus adductus)
    • This is the most common form of being pigeon-toed, when the feet bend inward from the middle part of the foot to the toes.
  • Twisted shin (tibial torsion)
    • This is where the tibia or lower leg slightly (or severely) twists inward when walking.
  • Twisted thighbone (femoral anteversion)
    • This is when the femur or thigh bone turns inward when walking.


Again, most of these conditions correct themselves during normal childhood milestones.   In severe cases, serial casting and special shoes and braces may be used to aid in correction.  Sometimes, surgery may be required.

If you are concerned about your child being pigeon-toed, it is best to have them examined by a Foot and Ankle Specialist.

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